Artificial Intelligence is a vastly complicated topic. It’s not just that it has a lot of components (because it does) it’s because it isn’t really a single topic. It’s a surprisingly old field of study that has morphed and changed over the years. I worked with “AI Systems” in the 1970’s – and even then it was based on much older concepts.
Whenever you attempt to learn a new topic, there are two dangers to keep in mind: making the topic so complete and deep that it becomes impossible to understand it; or making the topic so simple you think you understand it, but you really don’t.
At the risk of the latter danger, let’s simplify AI a bit – at least to start our journey. We’ll start with the simplest of definitions of AI. I certainly didn’t invent this description, but here’s how I talk about AI:
Artificial Intelligence is when computers do things that humans normally do.
Now that is quite over-simplified – and “begs the question” (did you know that phrase doesn’t really mean what you think it means?).
What do we mean by “things humans normally do”, and how do they do that? Let’s use an example.
Sitting next to me right now is a cup of coffee. (It doesn’t actually matter when you read this article, that is probably still true). I see the cup of coffee, decide that I want some, pick it up, and take a sip.
That simple action is immensely complex. Using the amazing vision system my body has, I can differentiate the cup from all other objects on my desk. The vision system, connected to my brain, recognizes that object as a cup, associates it with the concept of coffee, recalls the memory of making it recently so that I know it’s still hot (and knows what “hot” means), another subsystem “decides” I “want” the coffee, sends a signal to the subsystem that controls movement, grasping, spatial awareness and others, lifts it to my mouth (which is yet another subsystem) which drinks the coffee (another subsystem), all while my eyes and mind have moved on to other tasks.
And that’s just drinking a sip of coffee.
I think about driving a car, or even more complicated, when I ride my motorcycle, and it becomes amazingly complicated to even describe the processes involved or even to define the subsystems involved. The field of AI attempts to do just that.
So let’s simplify that a bit. Almost all of these components involve three basic concepts, all modeled on how the brain works:
In this phase, the system takes in information or stimuli in some way. In my case, it was the vision system differentiating objects using light reflection. Computer vision, an implementation of AI, works exactly the same way.
Note that acquiring doesn’t have to involve external senses like sight, sound or touch. It can also be the process of getting new or different information from another subsystem. This is the phase in AI that you write to bring in data – wherever that data is from.
And stringing the output from a “Respond” phase can lead to this “Acquire” phase of your AI program.
In this phase, the data is processed in some way. In my case, the memory of a cup, coffee, and heat are all involved in that processing. I used a recognition algorithm to “see” the cup with the coffee in it – that action is pretty complicated.
In the case of AI, functions such as Machine Learning and Deep Learning, and algorithms in those disciplines such as Neural Networks are used to process the data from the inputs. The Cognitive Services API for computer vision contains an example of the input from the computer’s camera to be passed on to another API for image recognition.
In this phase, the AI system either performs an action, or sends the processed data along to another AI function (or both). In my case, I “decided” I wanted some coffee. The decision subsystem acquired the data, processed it, and responded with an action to trigger my gross and fine motor subsystem to reach out and pick it up, which had an acquire phase of spatial awareness, nerve endings and so on to process where my hand was at the time, and a response of touching the cup, grasping it, lifting it, and bringing it to my mouth. And each of those is also a subsystem.
AI works in this way – a series of acquiring information, processing it, and responding according to a set of rules. AI is a chain of these smaller systems working together to mimic human behavior.
(Well, mostly. It’s more complicated than that of course)
I’ll flesh this out more in future articles – for now, the definition of AI, along with these three components can serve as an (incomplete, to be sure) introduction.